Straub Stage 6

  1. This story map breaks down some of the most extreme cases of railroad towns. Both the booms and busts follow similar trends based on the lining of the rail lines. Learning about these many cities, we hear about their growth, the timeframes of their existence, and the demographics of these communities. This is supported by graphs, pictures,
  2. and maps to put together a story.
  • I loved the way you slowly built the map of the area. By starting out with just the singular town, then adding a neighbor, and so on. Every city added a piece of the puzzle to complete the map. By the end of the presentation, we could look at the included map and have a full understanding of the different cities, railroads, and the surrounding area. I also appreciated all the historical photographs. I think these added a lot to your story. Seeing pictures of people specifically reminded me that this was telling the story of people’s homes and that there is more to the story other than just railroad cities. Finally, I am a big fan of graphs, so the population graphs really helped put these demographic changes into perspective.
  • I would certainly suggest using more page headers to give an easier transition from town to town. Having that included in the drop-down bar at the top would certainly be beneficial rather than just limiting it to the “Booms and Busts” and the Works Cited. Perhaps doing the booms first and then juxtaposing it with busts, followed by common themes. This was slightly touched on in the conclusion, but I think highlighting these themes a little more at the start and end of your story map would go a long way to getting your point across.

Straub Stage 3

  1. University of Kentucky uknowledge. (n.d.). Retrieved April 6, 2022, from

In this report, we review the economic impact when a sports team leaves the city. He concludes that there is minimal impact for the direct economy of the cities.

  • Bantock, J. (2021, October 18). A permanent residence? fans weigh in on potential London NFL franchise. CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

This is an article considering the potential for the jaguars removal from Jacksonville, in a move to London. This is part of the question I am hoping to answer with this study. Does the existence of an NFL team draw in city prosperity for local businesses? Can Jacksonville afford to lose the jaguars?

  • Zimbalist, A., & Noll, R. G. (2016, July 28). Sports, jobs, & taxes: Are new stadiums worth the cost? Brookings. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

This article considers if new stadiums are beneficial to local economies when paid by the public funds raised through taxes. This article was also written very close to the creation of the Jacksonville jaguars franchise, thus making it even more relevant to my subject.

  • Alfieri, R. (2011, February 13). The NFL’s role in society. Gang Green Nation. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

Here we review “The NFL’s role in society”. This is a very interesting concept for me, as this sport dominates Sundays for half the year. I love to dive in on the “why”.

  • Bantock, J. (2021, October 18). A permanent residence? fans weigh in on potential London NFL franchise. CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

In this reading, we review the limited support Jacksonville has had in recent years, as well as the optimism held for the future. Ranking 29th out of 32 teams, the jaguars have had a disheartening attendance record in 2021.

  • Jaguars community: Jacksonville Jaguars. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

Another factor to consider, is the impact players have on a city, as they find creative ways to give back to their fans. Here, the jaguars have a page dedicated just to the “jaguars community”.

This page reviews the move from Oakland to Las Vegas for the raiders. With factors like newly promised public funds, poor original venues, and limited legal repercussions, the choice was clear for the Raiders.

  • Zarpentine, B., says:, M. A. R. K. H. A. L. B. U. R. N., says:, S. H., says:, G. P., Says:, E., says:, A., says:, P. R. (@P. R. N. D., says:, T., Says:, A., says:, J. S., says:, L., Says:, J., says:, J., & says:, M. (2021, December 3). 15 best expansion cities if the NFL adds new franchises. Franchise Sports. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

This article depicts the potential teams in consideration for expansion should the NFL expand. This can be used in my conclusion to wrap up if these cities would truly benefit from the financing of an NFL team.

  • Lisa, A. (2022, February 7). Is hosting the Super Bowl Worth it for cities? GOBankingRates. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from,%2430%20million%20to%20%24130%20million.

The jaguars hosted the Superbowl in 2005. As a warm weather city, they qualify to host the super bowl, however it’s important to consider if the benefits out weigh the cost.

  1. Handley, L. (2019, February 1). The Super Bowl is worth billions each year – here’s who makes what. CNBC. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from–heres-who-makes-what.html

Finally, the ultimate goal of any NFL team is of course to win the Super Bowl. Here, we learn the financial rewards to be gained in this great honor (that the jaguars have never achieved).


  1. Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler, and Steven Ruggles. IPUMS National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 16.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS. 2021.

This is where I got the data to create the maps for census data for 2000. Using this, I will be able to use census information to track changes from when

This gave me access to the data tables I will be using for my income by the decade in selected counties of Florida. With this I will be able to track the change in wealth over the 30 years of the Jaguars existence, and use this as a comparison to the spending records I will use later.

These data sets provide the races of people within the selected time periods, which allows me to track the changes on demographics within the counties around Jacksonville.

By getting access to the 1990 census, I will be able to use the data prior to the introduction of the Jacksonville Jaguars in 1995. Here I will be able to have an official starting point as I map the change over time in the metro area.

This data provides me with the food stores total sales per county based on survey data taken of the area. With this, I will note the impact the Jaguars have on consumption in the restaurant industry.

8. Trafficmetrix. Kalibrate Global. (2022, February 8). Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

This data from Kalibrate (Market Planning Solutions) provided me with the information to log the number of people who watch regular season NFL games regularly. This will give me a sign as to the market penetration the jaguars have in their city

9. (INEGI). National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI). (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

Here, I was able to get the data for spending on sporting events by county. This will give me an idea on how much income professional sports are receiving in the area.

  1. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2022, April 6). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

This provides Television access for households within each county of my chosen region. This will allow me to conclude the percentage of homes that have the option to watch football games from home.

Blog 8 Straub

There is certainly a lot to unpack after completing the reading for a topic like this. Racial injustices have always plagued this country, and today we are discussing the most serious of the issues. Lynching and murder are a travesty regardless of who’s impacted, as human life is inherently precious. In the context of this week’s blog, we are discussing these actions enacted on someone simply because of the color of their skin. We looked over two maps that plot the history of these acts, and there are immediate takeaways.

In the first map, we see the intentional simplicity the author chooses to use. When creating this map, the focus was strict on the lynching of African Americans in America. The first attribute I noticed wasn’t a direct trait of this focus, however. I was quickly drawn into the inclusion of the state and county boundaries. In the article, they described this map as “minimalist”. I disagree with the choice of this term.  They could have simply laid out pinpoints of every racial terror lynching since 1877 in the nation. Instead, they chose to do this exact choropleth map with specific intentions. Their goal was to show the inconsistent distribution of racial injustices among states in the southeast. Additionally, the counties are emphasized as they localize these actions, showing the creator’s choice of scalability. This was an effective choice, as it looks like an overwhelming majority of counties have experienced lynching’s in states like Louisiana, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, and even Virginia. A surprising note, states with no lynchings to report, is left completely unmarked. Once again, this is a deliberate choice to leave them out of the story. Sometimes, some of the most important aspects of the map are what isn’t shown. By removing the names, the author is perhaps saying they aren’t relevant in the racial terror history of this country, or that they are not guilty of such crimes. Another important factor is the styling of the choropleth map. They chose to fill these affected areas with blood-red coatings on a dull charcoal background. This is a clear semblance to the bloodshed in the area. This ties back into the choice to leave out certain states. My interpretation of this map is they are claiming these are blood-stained states/ counties, which will never be able to wash away the shame of their history.

In the second map, we see a different approach. Here, the map makers decided more is better, thus, telling a different story. One aspect that I came to appreciate on this map is the timeline along the bottom, showing the clear distribution of these crimes. This gives us the ability to rationally make judgments on where we have been and where we are going as a country. Additionally, this mapmaker decided to use dots, rather than choropleth mapping. This creates the ability to give detailed information about those who lost their lives in the lynchings, as well as realize these are more than just data points on a map, but rather human lives. Another piece that I really enjoyed is the inclusion of all races lynched in this period. Here, we get an inclusive story of white supremacy (ironic). By plotting these by color coding, we can make our own deductions on the history of injustices across different races. It’s certainly noticeable that west of Dallas we see a large reduction in lynching against African Americans, yet a sporadic population of Mexicans and Native Americans. Perhaps these are less prevalent, in the East. Realistically, however, the East is covered in layers of the lynching of African Americans, overshadowing other races. Finally, what I appreciate most, is the preface before accessing the map. We are given information on the background, creation, and implementation of this map as if the creator is trying to step out of the way and be as unbiased as possible. Here we are not only given the ability to form our own opinions, but also quite literally shape the map to our choice, as we can choose what’s included (given the inclusion of random murders). These authors attempted to give us all the information they could and then stepped out of the way, to let us come up with our own conclusion (which they assume will align with their own).

While both maps are telling similar stories, they do so in very different ways. I found both to be very insightful, impactful, and successful in the assertation of their argument. I genuinely got some big takeaways from this assignment, while thoroughly enjoying it too. Despite such a heart-wrenching topic, it became a positive learning experience.

Stage 1- Straub

How has the introduction of the Jaguars to Jacksonville impacted the demographics of the city? Has this caused a shift in population? Has the distribution of people shifted closer or farther to the proximity of the stadium? Has the city financially prospered over this period? How has the downtown atmosphere grown in presence of restaurants and sports bars?

As a relatively recent expansion team (1995), the 3rd youngest team, and one of the poorest performing, it may be difficult to make substantial conclusions compared to other teams. However, I think therefore it’s the most interesting, as it will likely have the most moderate transition, thus highlighting the impacts an NFL team can have on a city, even in the poorest environments.

Straub Stage 2

  1. The scope of the project (how wide and area and how much time will your map/mapping product consider?) Make sure to keep the scope of the project manageable.

I will be mapping the metro for Jacksonville. This will give me the general outreach outside the city, without losing the importance of the heart of the downtown area.

  • What are some of the possible sources (i.e. digital maps, online data, historical data, secondary sources) that will be employed in your digital mapping product?

Using the census will always be the first tool for information, but I think finding information for businesses in the area will be even more pivotal for the drawing of a conclusion. If I am able to get access to information like 10ks, property values estimate, and demographics, I should be able to put together various results from the project.

  • What type of final project will you create/present? An interactive web map? A story map? Why is this the best way to present your question/data/answer?

I would want to use a story map to have control of the narrative and walk individuals along my findings, as there may be a lot of data that an interactive map would become confusing. This will help me reach my conclusion in a clear way.

  • A clear explanation of the value of this project as a piece of scholarship.

Recently, the buffalo bills threatened the city of buffalo that if they did not use taxpayer money to build them a new stadium, then they would leave for a new city (Austin Texas). This project can help see if an NFL team is able to generate revenue for a city that could justify putting on a costly investment like building the new stadium.

Straub Practicum Week 9

From 1880 to the 1900s, there was a general expansion of cultivated land, especially in the Eastern States. Specifically, Kansas faced severe growth within the North East region (Kansas City area!). Meanwhile, the South became a bit denser in the Central/ Northern plot near Texas. both showed their percentages of cultivated land was increasing over the 20 year period, however one segment moved outward, while the other was an internal increase. Likely, this was due to the increasing knowledge of which land was best suited for crop production, which would explain why Kansas expanded, and Texas rather became more compacted.

Straub Weekly Student Post

One topic I have never discussed, and never anticipated discussing is agricultural history in relation to mapping. Of course, going to school in Nebraska, this is a very big part of the state’s identity, and perhaps our entire nation.

The first map we reviewed was a combination of a topographic map and a thematic map. It had both elements combined to show the wheat produced per square mile in 1900. Here, the centerfold of the page, marks a clear latitude, known as the 99th meridian that produces far more than anywhere else. This central region averages in the 160-640 bushes per sq mile ranking. This map really points out the importance of agriculture within this region. Sadly, a tragedy would soon occur, which we can examine more in the next map.

These maps chart the percentage of total county area not plowed from 1880 to 1997 of land located on the same latitude marker as discussed in the first map. Early on, we see all land was 80-100% unplowed. Over the next 6 decades, this would slowly change. By 1935, all counties shown would be at least 20% plowed, with nearly a third of the land nearing 50+ percent. Consequently, the previous 5 years had been plagued with the infamous dust bowl. What surprised me, is that the following years saw a decline. All the way through ’97, the wheat production consistently declined. This aligns with the impacts of the dust bowl. As farmers began to learn some areas where unable to produce wheat, the production would naturally fall off. This map can be utilized as a tool to plot the impacts of the westward expansion and the dust bowl.

Overall, I’d conclude these maps were tools utilized in the aftermath of the dust bowl to help explain the causes and effects of the historic event. They were very useful for me in reviewing a subject I briefly ran through in middle school.

Straub- Redlining Map

  1. What patterns do you see between mortgage companies and locations that supplied lendees in Philadelphia?

It certainly looks like there might be a correlation with the locations of lendees and mortgage companies in this area. The central/ west region seems to have a particularly large population, unlike the northwest region.

  • Which regions had the highest interest rates?

Interest rates are highest in the southwestern portion of the map, which is where the maps plot the hazardous zone.

  • What indication do you see (if any) that HOLC maps caused redlining (as opposed to mapping preexisting discrimination). If none, what additional historical evidence do you think you might need to establish this relationship?

There is certainly an indication to suggest HOLC maps are correlated with the redlining process. It’s hard to say for certain, however, what the cause is. Using data from other cities could certainly help.

  • What additional data layers do you think might supply evidence of discriminatory housing policy/segregated urban development that you don’t have access to in this exercise?

I think plotting income would be the biggest factor that’s getting overlooked here, as this could be evidence against discriminatory actions.

  • Create one clear, legible map that you think best demonstrates the most compelling visualization of redlining in Philadelphia.

The last map helps show both the HOLC maps and the population of black people in the area. This would certainly be the strongest and most straightforward argument for the redlining