Straub Stage 6

  1. This story map breaks down some of the most extreme cases of railroad towns. Both the booms and busts follow similar trends based on the lining of the rail lines. Learning about these many cities, we hear about their growth, the timeframes of their existence, and the demographics of these communities. This is supported by graphs, pictures,
  2. and maps to put together a story.
  • I loved the way you slowly built the map of the area. By starting out with just the singular town, then adding a neighbor, and so on. Every city added a piece of the puzzle to complete the map. By the end of the presentation, we could look at the included map and have a full understanding of the different cities, railroads, and the surrounding area. I also appreciated all the historical photographs. I think these added a lot to your story. Seeing pictures of people specifically reminded me that this was telling the story of people’s homes and that there is more to the story other than just railroad cities. Finally, I am a big fan of graphs, so the population graphs really helped put these demographic changes into perspective.
  • I would certainly suggest using more page headers to give an easier transition from town to town. Having that included in the drop-down bar at the top would certainly be beneficial rather than just limiting it to the “Booms and Busts” and the Works Cited. Perhaps doing the booms first and then juxtaposing it with busts, followed by common themes. This was slightly touched on in the conclusion, but I think highlighting these themes a little more at the start and end of your story map would go a long way to getting your point across.

Straub Stage 3

  1. University of Kentucky uknowledge. (n.d.). Retrieved April 6, 2022, from

In this report, we review the economic impact when a sports team leaves the city. He concludes that there is minimal impact for the direct economy of the cities.

  • Bantock, J. (2021, October 18). A permanent residence? fans weigh in on potential London NFL franchise. CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

This is an article considering the potential for the jaguars removal from Jacksonville, in a move to London. This is part of the question I am hoping to answer with this study. Does the existence of an NFL team draw in city prosperity for local businesses? Can Jacksonville afford to lose the jaguars?

  • Zimbalist, A., & Noll, R. G. (2016, July 28). Sports, jobs, & taxes: Are new stadiums worth the cost? Brookings. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

This article considers if new stadiums are beneficial to local economies when paid by the public funds raised through taxes. This article was also written very close to the creation of the Jacksonville jaguars franchise, thus making it even more relevant to my subject.

  • Alfieri, R. (2011, February 13). The NFL’s role in society. Gang Green Nation. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

Here we review “The NFL’s role in society”. This is a very interesting concept for me, as this sport dominates Sundays for half the year. I love to dive in on the “why”.

  • Bantock, J. (2021, October 18). A permanent residence? fans weigh in on potential London NFL franchise. CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

In this reading, we review the limited support Jacksonville has had in recent years, as well as the optimism held for the future. Ranking 29th out of 32 teams, the jaguars have had a disheartening attendance record in 2021.

  • Jaguars community: Jacksonville Jaguars. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

Another factor to consider, is the impact players have on a city, as they find creative ways to give back to their fans. Here, the jaguars have a page dedicated just to the “jaguars community”.

This page reviews the move from Oakland to Las Vegas for the raiders. With factors like newly promised public funds, poor original venues, and limited legal repercussions, the choice was clear for the Raiders.

  • Zarpentine, B., says:, M. A. R. K. H. A. L. B. U. R. N., says:, S. H., says:, G. P., Says:, E., says:, A., says:, P. R. (@P. R. N. D., says:, T., Says:, A., says:, J. S., says:, L., Says:, J., says:, J., & says:, M. (2021, December 3). 15 best expansion cities if the NFL adds new franchises. Franchise Sports. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

This article depicts the potential teams in consideration for expansion should the NFL expand. This can be used in my conclusion to wrap up if these cities would truly benefit from the financing of an NFL team.

  • Lisa, A. (2022, February 7). Is hosting the Super Bowl Worth it for cities? GOBankingRates. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from,%2430%20million%20to%20%24130%20million.

The jaguars hosted the Superbowl in 2005. As a warm weather city, they qualify to host the super bowl, however it’s important to consider if the benefits out weigh the cost.

  1. Handley, L. (2019, February 1). The Super Bowl is worth billions each year – here’s who makes what. CNBC. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from–heres-who-makes-what.html

Finally, the ultimate goal of any NFL team is of course to win the Super Bowl. Here, we learn the financial rewards to be gained in this great honor (that the jaguars have never achieved).


  1. Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler, and Steven Ruggles. IPUMS National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 16.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS. 2021.

This is where I got the data to create the maps for census data for 2000. Using this, I will be able to use census information to track changes from when

This gave me access to the data tables I will be using for my income by the decade in selected counties of Florida. With this I will be able to track the change in wealth over the 30 years of the Jaguars existence, and use this as a comparison to the spending records I will use later.

These data sets provide the races of people within the selected time periods, which allows me to track the changes on demographics within the counties around Jacksonville.

By getting access to the 1990 census, I will be able to use the data prior to the introduction of the Jacksonville Jaguars in 1995. Here I will be able to have an official starting point as I map the change over time in the metro area.

This data provides me with the food stores total sales per county based on survey data taken of the area. With this, I will note the impact the Jaguars have on consumption in the restaurant industry.

8. Trafficmetrix. Kalibrate Global. (2022, February 8). Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

This data from Kalibrate (Market Planning Solutions) provided me with the information to log the number of people who watch regular season NFL games regularly. This will give me a sign as to the market penetration the jaguars have in their city

9. (INEGI). National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI). (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

Here, I was able to get the data for spending on sporting events by county. This will give me an idea on how much income professional sports are receiving in the area.

  1. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2022, April 6). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from

This provides Television access for households within each county of my chosen region. This will allow me to conclude the percentage of homes that have the option to watch football games from home.

Blog post #8

As a proud American, it pains me to discuss such a despicable and evil part of our nations history, racial violence. More specifically lynching and senseless hate crimes. This reading was tough to get through and wrap my mind around as it is so horrible that there are people on this earth who would kill an innocent person just because their skin color is different. I always knew this was a problem in the south but I had never imagined it was to this scale. It’s impossible to wrap your head around all the lives ended and effected by these crimes. Maps allow us to visualize the distribution and number of lynching and racial violence across the United States in a way which is easy to navigate and understand. Seeing all of these acts of violence displayed is sickening but it is important to see for yourself just how widespread this issue was and continues to be today.

I will start by going over the map of White Supremacy’s mob violence map. In my opnion, this map is more detailed and informative when it comes to specifics. It clearly shows the race of the person targeted and displays information about each killing when going over the point with your mouse. I think this second detail in particular humanizes each person who has been effected by this and gives the viewer a deeper understanding of the broad statistics. The timeline at the bottom of the page allows you to see the time periods where this mob violence became more prevalent as well as showing the viewer where the attacks were positioned at during any year. The amount of information presented is overwhelming when viewing the website as a whole but if one is searching for data in specific time period or region, it is an incredibly useful tool. Obviously the largest collection of mob violence is present in the American south. As the region with the largest connection to slavery and a high African American population living there post-slavery it seems natural that there would be the most racial violence there. Scrolling through the timeline it seems that this region is most prominent throughout. What is interesting is seeing the regions where racial violence was towards Asians, Native Americans, or Latinos. We don’t tend to think of other minority groups when discussing racist mob violence but there are a substantial amount of hate crimes committed against these groups too. There are a considerable amount of violence committed against Latinos in the southwest region which again makes sense as this area tends to have a high population of hispanic peoples. For violence against the Chinese, it tends to be on the western side of the nation but without a ton of patterns aside from California being the main area. Once again this makes sense with a historical lens as many Chinese immigrants lived and settled in California and thus more racial violence is likely to occur. I was a bit scared to specifically search areas where I live or my relatives live and unfortunately I found acts of racial violence did occur in these areas I find so familiar. It just goes to show how widespread and encompassing this issue truly is in the United States. It truly makes me sad to see how many have been killed or traumatized by crimes against those who are of different races, but I am proud that our nation is so diverse and filled with people from all around the world. America is a melting pot and it experiences both the benefits and awful negatives that come with it.

The second map is titled Racial Terror Lynchings and depicts the number of lynchings in each county across the United States. It is much less through and detailed as the previous map but it is easier to digest. There is no separation between races and it is not clear if this map only shows lynchings involving African Americans or any minority group. Since the data shows such a strong pattern in the south I must assume it is only measuring the number of African Americans who were lynched. Aside from the few white dots, there is no further information on who it was that was killed or why they were murdered. If you zoom into a specific county then you will see how many lynchings were committed but nothing more. When viewing the white dots it presents a video in memorial for the victim which is a very important and good thing. The simplicity of the map does lend itself to a more casual browsing and it gets the point across well that so many have been murdered because of their race. I also like the touch of making the counties more red the more killings took place there. The color of red reminds us of the blood spilled and how the areas grow darker with each act of violence. I just wish there was more information here to share with the viewer. The first map is more informative and interesting in almost every way, the videos are the only thing that make this map stand out.

Both maps serve their intended purpose. The first is incredibly informative and chorally in its presentation. It gives us a detailed map of the violence, race, and location of every racially motived murder. The second is a more broad and simple map of the violence which has been committed against American Americans as well as using the imagery of the color red to instill an anger in the atrocities committed. The subject of racial violence is not a pleasant or easy one to explore but it isn’t something we can just turn away from. Many of us are so privileged and never even consider that we could be attacked for something we cannot control. Unfortunately, there is real cause for fear among many that they could be murdered at any time. It is horrifying that humans can do such evil for no logical reason. As much as this topic was not a happy one, it was very important and I am grateful to understand the magnitude of this issue much better.